Literature on HNRNPU
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (scaffold attachment factor A); DNA- and RNA-binding protein involved in several cellular processes such as nuclear chromatin organization, telomere-length regulation, transcription, mRNA alternative splicing and stability, Xist-mediated transcriptional silencing and mitotic cell progression. Plays a role in the regulation of interphase large-scale gene-rich chromatin organization through chromatin- associated RNAs (caRNAs) in a transcription-dependent manner, and thereby maintains genomic stability. Required for the localization of the long non-coding Xist RNA on the inactive chromosome X (Xi) and the subsequent initiation and maintenance of X-linked transcriptional gene silencing during X-inactivation (By similarity). Plays a role as a RNA polymerase II (Pol II) holoenzyme transcription regulator. Promotes transcription initiation by direct association with the core-TFIIH basal transcription factor complex for the assembly of a functional pre-initiation complex with Pol II in a actin-dependent manner. Blocks Pol II transcription elongation activity by inhibiting the C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation of Pol II and dissociates from Pol II pre-initiation complex prior to productive transcription elongation. Positively regulates CBX5-induced transcriptional gene silencing and retention of CBX5 in the nucleus. Negatively regulates glucocorticoid-mediated transcriptional activation. Key regulator of transcription initiation and elongation in embryonic stem cells upon leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling (By similarity). Involved in the long non-coding RNA H19-mediated Pol II transcriptional repression. Participates in the circadian regulation of the core clock component ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription (By similarity). Plays a role in the regulation of telomere length. Plays a role as a global pre-mRNA alternative splicing modulator by regulating U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) biogenesis. Plays a role in mRNA stability. Component of the CRD-mediated complex that promotes MYC mRNA stabilization. Enhances the expression of specific genes, such as tumor necrosis factor TNFA, by regulating mRNA stability, possibly through binding to the 3'- untranslated region (UTR). Plays a role in mitotic cell cycle regulation. Involved in the formation of stable mitotic spindle microtubules (MTs) attachment to kinetochore, spindle organization and chromosome congression. Phosphorylation at Ser- 59 by PLK1 is required for chromosome alignement and segregation and progression through mitosis. Contributes also to the targeting of AURKA to mitotic spindle MTs. Binds to double- and single-stranded DNA and RNA, poly(A), poly(C) and poly(G) oligoribonucleotides. Binds to chromatin-associated RNAs (caRNAs). Associates with chromatin to scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) elements in a chromatin-associated RNAs (caRNAs)-dependent manner. Binds to the Xist RNA. Binds the long non-coding H19 RNA. Binds to SMN1/2 pre-mRNAs at G/U-rich regions. Binds to small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). Binds to the 3'-UTR of TNFA mRNA. Binds (via RNA-binding RGG-box region) to the long non-coding Xist RNA; this binding is direct and bridges the Xist RNA and the inactive chromosome X (Xi) (By similarity). Also negatively regulates embryonic stem cell differentiation upon LIF signaling (By similarity). Required for embryonic development (By similarity).
Synonyms: HNRNPU, B4DLR3, HNRPU, Q00839, Q5RI18 ...